The Essentials of Water

A glass of water macro shot

Soothing, refreshing, replenishing; making up about 60% of the body, water is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in your health.

What impact does water have on the body?

  • Regulates blood pressure and body temperature
  • Lubricates joints
  • Protects the brain
  • Promotes healthy skin
  • Removes waste from the body
  • Aids in digestion

You may have heard that the recommend amount of water is eight 8 ounces, but age, activity level, and your health should also be taken into consideration. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, women should drink about 9 cups per day and men 12.5 cups.

Urology specialist of the Carolinas urine color guide

Dehydration occurs when fluid your body loses is not replaced. Signs of dehydration include:

  • Dark colored urine
  • Headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Dry Skin

Here are a few tips to increase your water intake.

  • Carry a bottle of water with you
  • Drink a glass of water when you wake up
  • Drink a glass of water with your medicine unless otherwise specified
  • Track how much water your consume
  • Order water instead of soda
  • Drink small 8 ounce bottles if consuming larger sized bottles is overwhelming
  • Have a glass of water before getting seconds
  • Flavor your water with fruits
  • Have a glass of water after using the restroom
  • Drink water before, during, and after exercising
  • Include water rich foods in your diet like watermelon, celery, strawberries, cucumbers, cantaloupe, grapefruit, lettuce, zucchini, tomatoes, and bell peppers


Gordon, B. (2020). How Much Water Do You Need. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.


Nutrition: Getting Back to the Basics

In a culture where we get caught up in the latest trends and diets, it’s important to know what the basics are when it comes to nutrition.

There are several terms floating around in the world of nutrition, and to some, it may seem confusing or even overwhelming. But no worries, here is a simple breakdown of what some of those terms are and additional information that you should know.


What is a nutrient? A nutrient is simply a substance that our body needs to function properly.  While the body naturally produces a small amount of some nutrients, most of the nutrients we receive are from what we eat and drink.

There are seven essential nutrients: water, fiber, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Water, fiber, fats, carbohydrates, and protein are often referred to as macronutrients.1 They are called macronutrients because the body needs large amounts of them.  Vitamins and minerals are also important, but because they are only needed in small amounts, they are called micronutrients. Whether it’s a macro- or micronutrient, each is essential for your health and wellbeing. 


Water serves several functions.  In addition to keeping the body hydrated, it lubricates joints, flushes waste from the body, helps dissolve vitamins and minerals, and regulates body temperature.2 Not only can you drink water, but it’s also found in many fruits and vegetables (e.g., celery, melons, and spinach). The recommended amount of water varies, but women should drink about 9 cups, and men 12.5 cups a day. 3


Some people hear and see the word but have no idea what it is and what purpose it serves. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that plays an important role in your digestive and heart health.

Soluble and insoluble are two types of fiber. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and helps to lower blood cholesterol and is found in foods like oatmeal, beans, apples, lentils, strawberries and nuts.

Insoluble fiber helps to prevent constipation by moving food through your digestive system.  Insoluble fiber doesn’t dissolve in water and includes foods like whole wheat breads, carrots, whole-grain cereal, and brown rice.

While fiber isn’t found in meat, many types of foods contain both types of fiber. The recommended amount of fiber is 20 – 30 grams per day.4

Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins have several functions.  They help with growth and development, metabolism, nerve function, and defends the body from disease.

Minerals can prevent cell damage, regulate muscle and nerve damage, support cell growth, and protects the immune system.

Several vitamins and minerals rely on each other so that the body can function. The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements has a complete list of vitamins and minerals.


Carbohydrates (sugar, fiber, and starches) are broken down into glucose to give your body energy. Think of your body as a car. The food you eat breaks down into glucose and gives your body fuel so that your body can work properly; and just as it is important that a car needs the correct gas for a car to run, your body needs certain types of carbs, healthy carbs, to function properly.

There are two types of carbs, simple and complex. Simple carbs break down into glucose fast and can cause a spike in blood sugar for people with diabetes.5 Sugar naturally occurring in fruit (fructose) and milk (lactose) are simple carbs.  Other simple carbohydrates include white rice, white bread, honey, candy, and sodas.

Compared to simple carbs, complex carbs breakdown into glucose at a slower rate. Whole grains, oats, vegetables, beans and legumes are examples of foods that provide complex carbs.


The word fat usually has negative associations.  However, fat promotes cell growth, helps the body absorb nutrients, and helps produce hormones.

Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are the “healthier fats” that are liquid in room temperature and consists of foods like nuts and seeds, fish, and avocado.  These are the types of fats that may help lower cholesterol, but they should be eaten in moderation.6

American Heart Association

Saturated fats are solid in room temperature (e.g., coconut oil and palm oil) and is in processed food, cheese, and meat. A diet high in saturated fat increases your risk of heart disease and high cholesterol.

Trans fats occur naturally in some animals in small amounts.  They are also created and added to products to extend the shelf life of some foods.  The FDA is working to remove artificial trans fats from foods.


Known as the “building blocks of life,” protein is needed for cell tissue growth, creates some hormones, supports the immune system, and is used to send messages between cells. 

Protein is also a source of energy and is found in meats, eggs, dairy, beans and legumes, soy, and in low amounts in vegetables.7 

There is a lot of information out there, so do your research and make choices based on your dietary needs.


[1]. United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.) Macronutrients.

[2]. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Water: Essential to your body.

[3]. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (2020). How Much Water Do You Need.

[4]. The Nutrition Source. (n.d.). Fiber.

[5]. American Heart Association. (2018). Carbohydrates.

[6]. American Heart Association. (2014). Dietary Fats.

[7]. United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). All about the Protein Foods Group.

Myths and Facts of Heart Attacks

Just imagine…You’re sitting in a movie theater fighting the nausea and indigestion you’ve been feeling all day.  Then you breakout into a cold sweat and begin having abdominal pain.  Thinking you have food poisoning, your friend rushes you to the hospital, but that is when you find out you’re having a heart attack. You wonder how that’s possible. You didn’t feel a sharp pain in your chest or strange sensations in your arms like you heard others having.

Heart attacks – There’s a ton of information out there, but what exactly is myth and what is fact? Here are 10 common heart attack myths and facts:

Myth #1: Heart attack symptoms are the same for everyone.

Fact: Heart attack symptoms are not the same for everyone.  In fact, men and women may even experience different heart attack symptoms. Common heart attack symptoms include

  • Pain or pressure in the chest
  • Jaw, neck, arm, shoulder or back pain
  • Shortness of breath

Women are more likely to experience nausea/vomiting, shortness of breath, and back and/or jaw pain. 1

Myth #2: Heart attack symptoms are always sudden.

Fact: Heart attack signs and symptoms may appear days or weeks before a heart attack occurs. A common warning sign is experiencing pain or pressure in your chest caused by a decrease of blood reaching the heart. 2

Myth #3: Only older adults have heart attacks.

Fact: Heart attacks are occurring more in younger people, especially among young women. 3

Myth #4: You’ll have a heart attack if someone in your family does.

Fact: Because of your family history, you may be at risk of developing heart disease. However, taking preventative steps can help reduce your risk of heart disease and heart attack. 4

Myth #5: Wait for your symptoms to get worse before calling 9-11.

Fact: Don’t wait. The longer you wait, the greater the damage to your heart.  Waiting can be fatal. 5

Myth #6: Men are more likely to die after a heart attack.

Fact: Compared to men, women are more likely to die from a heart attack. This could be due to being misdiagnosed, waiting longer to seek treatment, and not receiving the appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment. 6,7

Myth #7: A second heart attack will feel the same as the first.

Fact: Repeat heart attacks don’t always feel the same.  Some people who have repeat heart attacks report feeling different symptoms from their first heart attack. 8

Myth #8: All chest pain equals a heart attack.

Fact: Angina is a common type of chest pain that happens when blood isn’t reaching your heart. There are two types of angina, stable and unstable.  Stable angina occurs when performing an activity or when under stress. Unstable angina can occur even while resting. Angina is different from a heart attack as it does not permanently damage the heart muscle. 9

Myth #9: You can’t exercise after having a heart attack.

Fact: Exercise can improve your heart health even after a heart attack. Once your doctor clears you for exercise, you can slowly begin an exercise plan. 10

Myth #10: Everyone knows when they’re having a heart attack.

Fact: It is possible to have a heart attack without knowing. Silent heart attacks have a different intensity than a classic heart attack and occurs with little to no symptoms.11

Dispel the myths. Do your research and speak with your doctor about your heart health concerns.


[1]. American Heart Association. (2016). Warning Signs of a Heart Attack.  

[2]. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Heart Attack.

[3]. American Heart Association. (2018). Heart attacks are becoming more common in younger people, especially women.

[4]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Prevent Heart Disease.  

[5]. American Heart Association. (2015). Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

[6]. Alabas, O. A., Gale, C. P., Hall, M., Rutherford, M. J., Szummer, K., Lawesson, S. S., Jernberg, T. (2017). Sex Differences in Treatments, Relative Survival, and Excess Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: National Cohort Study Using the SWEDEHEART Registry. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(12). doi:10.1161/jaha.117.007123

[7]. American College of Cardiology. (2015). Women Don’t Get to Hospital Fast Enough During Heart Attack.

[8]. American College of Cardiology. (2016). Heart Attack.

[9]. American Heart Association. (2016). About Heart Attacks.

[10]. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Exercise and Activity After a Heart Attack.

[11]. American Heart Association Go Red for Women. (n.d.). What is a Silent Heart Attack?

For the Love of Your Heart

This February marks the 56th anniversary of American Heart Month.  With heart disease being the leading cause of death in America, and the leading cause of death in the world, it’s important that people in America receive heart health education.1, 2

Exactly what is heart disease? Heart disease, or cardiovascular disease, is a group of conditions that affect your heart health. Having narrow or blocked blood vessels are two common causes of heart disease. When there is a buildup of plaque (a mix of cholesterol, calcium, fat and other substances) in your blood vessels and/or a blockage, it makes it hard for blood and oxygen to move throughout your body so that it can function properly.  Now heart disease isn’t the disease itself but covers a range of diseases like coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and cardiomyopathy.

Build up of plaque in blood vessel

Whether you want to take steps to prevent heart disease or you want to maintain your health, there are several risk factors that play a role in your heart health; factors you have control over and others you do not.  Family history, age, sex, and race are factors that are outside of your control. However, there are many heart disease risk factors that you do have control over including:

  • Diet and sodium intake
  • Weight
  • Physical activity
  • Alcohol intake
  • Tobacco use
  • Sleep habits 
  • Stress management

So, what are some steps you can take to prevent/manage your heart health?

  • Limit your sodium intake. We need sodium to help control our blood pressure and even contract our muscles, but too much of a good thing can be bad. Having a lot of sodium in your body increases blood flow and causes a constant high-pressured force of blood against the walls of your blood vessels causing damage. For someone who has high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or any other health condition, the daily limit of salt is 1,500 mg, that’s a little over ½ a teaspoon of salt. For those without a chronic condition, the daily limit is 2,300 mg.3
  • Be physically active. The Department of Health and Human Services recommends adults perform at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity, of aerobic physical activity each week. Don’t feel overwhelmed! You can break your physical activity up throughout the day. 4
  • Shed the pounds.  Having extra weight on your frame may cause your heart to work harder. Research has shown that losing five to 10 pounds can improve your blood pressure. 5
  • Limit your alcohol consumption.  Alcohol temporarily increases blood pressure after one drink, but consistently drinking over time leads to high blood pressure (hypertension). It is recommended that men limit their alcohol intake to 2 drinks per day and women to 1 drink per day. 6
  • Quit smoking. It’s easier said than done, but it is possible.  Twenty minutes after you quit smoking your blood pressure drops, and your risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack decreases after 1 year of quitting. is a resource for those looking for support.7
  • Get some sleep, restorative sleep.  There are five stages in the sleep cycle and stages 3 and 4 are two of the most important.  During those two stages, your body begins to repair itself and your blood pressure decreases.  Practicing sleep hygiene may help improve your quality and quantity of sleep.
  • Manage your stress.  Learning how to manage stress can improve your heart health.  Chronic stress can lead to overeating, less sleep, and a decrease in physical activity. Think about what your stress triggers are and healthy activities you can do to relieve stress.  Also learn what you do and do not have control over. 8
  • Know your numbers. Keeping track of your blood pressure, cholesterol, A1C (average blood sugar number over 2 – 3 months), and weight can help you gauge if your numbers fall within a healthy range.
Note: The target fasting blood sugar range for a diabetic is 80 – 130 mg/dL and less than 180 mg/dL two hours after a meal (American Diabetes Association, 2020).

Practice self-love this Valentine’s Day, and every day of the year, for the love of your heart.


[1]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Heart Disease Facts .

[2]. American Heart Association. (2015). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – At-a-Glance.

[3]. American Heart Association. (2018). How much sodium should I eat per day?

[4]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

[5]. American Heart Association. (2016). Managing Weight to Control High Blood Pressure.

[6]. American Heart Association. (2016). Limiting Alcohol to Manage High Blood Pressure.

[7]. American Cancer Society. (2018). Benefits of Quitting Smoking Over Time.

[8]. Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Don’t Underestimate Stress.

Welcome to The World of Public Health

Hi there, and welcome to The World of Public Health. I’m Tonja Rice, a Certified Health Education Specialist who is passionate about serving and educating others.

How it all began…

My experience in the public health field has been quite a journey to say the least. During my final year in undergrad at UMBC, two of my professors advised me to look into public health. I had no idea what public health was, but after doing some research, I realized it was a step in the right direction.

I began looking into graduate programs. However, I wanted to become a Peace Corps Volunteer. Becoming a Peace Corps Volunteer isn’t a process that happens overnight, and I wanted to spend one month abroad to make sure I really wanted to do a two-year Peace Corps stint. I literally was going to quit my full-time job so that I could spend a month in Ghana, but my Manager said I wouldn’t need to.

I was nervous, excited, and in awe as the plane landed in Accra. Being there was an eye opening experience. I was grateful for the opportunity to serve as an English/Health Teacher; and for the very first time, I felt free.

Three months after I returned home from Ghana, it was time for me to pack my bags and move to Tanzania. Living in a village, finding out how I could be of service to those around me, learning about other people, teaching, just being there continually changed my perspective and outlook on life.

Although I had to return home after 10 months, my time in Tanzania cemented that I wanted to work with women and children, that I wanted to be a Health Educator, and that I’m not only to serve in my own backyard in America, but across the globe. It cemented my purpose.

Since then, my goal has been to provide health education services to as many people as possible. In my career as a Health Educator, I have provided education to over 500 people, developed and co-developed health programs and workshops domestically and in Tanzania, spearheaded community health events, and even worked as an HIV Testing Counselor.

I am now in a new phase of my career, and would like to use this blog as an outlet to educate others about various public health topics. I hope you will take this journey with me. Questions or comments? Feel free to contact me at